Tu Idau

Mixtec of Santa Catarina Estetla
(Variant of Peñoles Mixtec)

Pronunciation Guide

Vowels

There are 6 basic vowels. 5 of these correspond to Spanish vowels:

a = ah; e = ay; i = ee; o = oh; u = oo. (approximate pronunciations!)

The sixth, written "+", is formed by saying e and rounding the lips slightly, but not so much as to form the German Ö.

In addition, all vowels have a nazalized form, not indicated here in any way, with the exception of nazalised "+", written " n ".

Consonants

X = sh
Z = zh

In general, the consonants should be pronounced softer than English consonants, IE, let some air escape as you say them. In addition, there is the sound "Ñ", pronounced "Ny".

Glottal Stops

Some words have an interruption of sound caused by closing the throat momentarily. This is marked with a '.

Stress

A marks a stressed syllable.

Tones

There are three tonal levels in Mixtec, high, medium, and low, which are not indicated here in any way.

Spelling and pronunciation contained herein are subject to revision.

I. Relations and Family Members

man tee
woman ñad+'+
boy te li'li
girl sa li'li
mister t+ sa cut'+
mrs. ña sa cut'+
young man te kwechi
young woman sa kwechi
elder ni z++ (uni z++)
elder woman +ni sa'nu
person, people ña z+ vu+
family iani tai+ (iani taii)
twins kwachi
father tate
mother nante
dead person d+i z+
husband z+i
wife ña v+'i
grandfather ta sa'nui
grandmother na sa'nui
aunt didi
uncle dito
daughter ndaiza d+'i
son ndaiza te'i
grandson te cuu chani
grandaughter sa cu chani
niece, nephew sobrinu+i *
cousin (male) primuia *
cousin (female) primari *
brother yani
sister cu'ai
stepmother nana cha'i
stepfather tata cha'i
stepson, stepdaughter daya cha'a

II. Jobs and Funtions

policeman (topil) tatnu
priest dutu
farmer dexe tatna
healer (male) xe tatna
healer (female) xe tatnaya
witch, sorcerer ñaozu tadi
president, authority teku tiuu
worker, helper tee chin deña a
carpenter tee xetio kuan davi tu
mason tee daka ve'e
cattle person tee kui ka
business person ñazuvu+n degun de negocio *
potter ñazeva k+de
weaver nia kanu do
cook dundu

III. Animals

Dukutu; K+t+
a. Insects
fly chukun
mosquito xi kwen yuu
cockroach t+dita
ant choko tukwe'e cha'u
leaf cutter ant choko rriera, choko rerru *
bee ñuñu
wasp tisaka
louse chuku
flea cho'o ya
termite ke de nuyñ+
tick tuyñ+ abexio
butterfly tikua
grub tumasa
earthworm cozik+
grasshopper t+ka
cricket tuynch+
firefly t+t+yñ+u
spider t+n do'o
tarantula tigata ini
cicada ch++
weavil t+kidi
b. Aracnids, amphibians, reptiles
scorpion d+lume
crab choo
frog la'va
toad la'va d+zi
lizard di che
snake koo
coral snake koo nund+v+ ("snake of colors")
rattlesnake koo kaa
c. birds t+daa
eagle tado
chicken hawk di'a
dove kuku
buzzard sengo
grackle t+ kaka
owl te kuku; za'a
egret dami kuixi
hawk chile'e
rooster lo'o
hen landu
chicken chuun
turkey (male) kolo
turkey (female) kuni
woodpecker ke tu'u
sparrow t+da vico ("cloud bird")
d. mammals
bat d+ x++
squirrel kweñu
mouse t+yñ+
possum saka
ringtail ch+n v+ñ++
fox nu kuii
skunk ch+'+
armadillo za'ku
rabbit (edible) ido kwixi
hare ido burru *
coyote ñaña
deer idu
calf che'lu
mule k+t+ xido
pig kuchi
sheep mbee

IV. PLANTS (edible)

century plant (maguey) zauu
prickly pear cactus vi'nde
epazote (worm seed) minu
mint minu stila ("Spanish herb")
chepil duandudu
quelite (wild spinach) ix kukuii
pigweed de kut'nu
sassafrass duandoo
sweet corn d+di itu
mushroom xi'i
onion d+kumi
potato t+ku+ti
tomato te nana
green (shell) tomato t+ nana chauu
green beans ndichi
garbanzo duchi garbanzu *
squash z+k+
baby squash z+k+n zute
chayote (choko, or vegetable pear) naña
chilacayota (a squash from which a drink is made) z+k+n tunduyu
sweet potato ya'mi
beans duchi
corn nuni
avocado t+chi
onion dikumi
peanut d+ vañu'u
b: Fruits
wild cherry deza
peach qui'i
guava t+kwee zu
anona doko
citrus t+kwee
banana chite
black zapote doko tnuu
white (sleeping) zapote doko kuixi
sweet lemon vidi zi
sweet potato ña'mi vidi
INEDIBLE
plant yuku
flower itu
grass ite
palm chiñuu
cornfield (milpa) itu
cotton cachi
cane (carrizo) zoo
tree yut'nu
oak tree tu zaa
pine tree tu zuza
pecan tree tu nuez *
okote pine tree it+
thorn tree tuiu
piñon tree tu zaxi

V. NATURE

a. celestial
air tachi
cloud vico
fog vico ñu'u
rain dau
hail ñiñi
lightning cha'ngi
star chodini
sun nikaanchi
rainbow cora'ngi
moon zoo
cloudy viko de'vu
heaven n+ tachi
eclipse zikanzi za'tan jen de zoo
day duu
night ñiu
b. Terrestrial
earthquake taa
river zute
dew zuzu
dust zu'me
well doko
arroyo zuu
hill yuku
mountain ch++
cave de'va
stone yuu
sand ni kuchi
mud de'iu
water ndute
spring do'zo
town ñuu
road ichi
plaza nuzau
church veñu'u (literally, "house of the elf")
house ve'e
wall z+ka ve'e
c. Household Utensils
pitcher q+le lo'o
petate (woven palm mat) zodo
bed nuxito
broom tu t+tw+ (lit. "tree sweep")
door zuzue'e (lit. "mouth house")
pestle (tejolote) k+ za'a
knife yuchi
hammock zu'a
blanket dod+ kachi
comal (griddle for making tortillas) xio
paper tutu
wax ñume
oven chit'nu
fire ñu'u
firewood nduku
metate (grinding stone) zodo
ashes zaa
plate ka'a
stone mortar (molcahete) ko zaa
fireplace nuka duñu'u
incense duza
fan (for fire) vichi
leather ñ++
wood yutu
viga (wooden beam) t+ tukoo
palm ñuu
rope zo'o
adobe da'o
smoke ñu'me
hoe grabatu
hatchet kaa
rifle zii
net ñunu
tenate (palm basket for tortillas) xide
money vi'u
d. Clothing
shirt do'no
underpants calzoni *
wool idi
loom ida
thread zu'a
sandals (huaraches) chauu
jorongo ("shepherd's coat") do sakui'tnu
huipil (blouse) diku
shawl tayu
hat mbelu
ring se'e
sweater do'na
shoes chavi

V. FOOD

NDUCHUA
meat kuñu
barbecued (deep pit) meat kuñu xitu
tamal xio
salsa za'a
tortilla dita
bread pa kaxoo *
egg d+vu+
rice kwa'a kaxoo
salt ñ++
atole (corn gruel) tute
pulque d+di kuixi
water ndute

VI. COLORS

red t+kwe'e
orange anaranjadu *
yellow kwaa
green kwii
blue chi'i
purple moradu *
brown cafe *
black tnuu

VII. VERBS

come vexi
go cua'a
walk kaka
stand up da kw+n y+
sit down ngo
sing xi tang
eat kaxi
drink ko'o
want kwinin
think kani ini ("think in your heart"
move kanda
be born niku
die nixi
plant dakuxu

VIII: Useful Phrases

Good morning Kobaadín.
Answer Kobadiátu.
Good afternoon Kobaadín Sakwaa.
Answer Kobadiátu Sakwaa.
Good evening Arasío.
Nice to see you. Ku kweni.
Nice to see you too. Ku kwen'n deku.
How are you? Nan dauku.
Fine. Deku bai.
(By your leave) I'm entering the house. Vexi ve'e.
Come in. Ne'e ve'e.
Where are you going? De k+'n?
I'm going to the hill now. Na k+'i zucu.
Get in (the car or truck). Kwa saa.
See you. Kau.
Goodbye (formal) Kande ini.
Answer Kande ini yo tuku.
Farewell. Kande tne tíu.
Have a tortilla. Kaxin dita.
Have some water. Ko'o ndute.
What's your name? Na nani?
My name's Sam. Nani yu'u Samuel.
I don't understand. A tu xini.
Thank you. Ta xa'u zin. (informal)
Niku tab'i (formal - for one person)
Niku tab'o (formal for two or more)
Where are you from? De te kuu?
How old are you? Na dáa kwiaan?
Nice to meet you. Kwa'a niku.
Yes D+u
No Ña d+u

* Indicates Spanish loan words, or words derived from Spanish

Compiled by Samuel M. Johnson
oaxacasam@hotmail.com